Prerequisite: Permission of CMNS-Atmospheric & Oceanic Science department; or permission of CMNS-Geology department. Jointly offered w ith AOSC420, GEOL670. Credit only granted for: GEOL670, AOSC670 or AOSC420. Ocean observations. Water masses, sources of deep water. Mass, heat, and salt transport, geochemical tracers. Western boundary currents, maintenance of the thermocline. Coastal and estuarine processes. Surface waves and tides. Ocean climate.