Physical, chemical, and thermal related failures are introduced through a basic understanding of degradation mechanisms such as diffusion, electromigration, defects and defect migration. The failure mechanisms in basic material types will be taught. Failure mechanisms observed in real devices will also be presented. Problems related to manufacturing, and achieving quality and reliability will be analyzed. Mechanical failures are emphasized from the point of view of complex fatigue theory. The mathematical and statistical basis for analysis is presented as well as Failure Mode and Failure Anaylsis.